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Grammar Books

Regular Verbs Simple Past / Past Participle Spelling Rules

The simple past tense is formed by adding -ed to the end of the verb.  However there are several rules depending on the spelling of the verb, these are:-

If the base of the verb ends in:-

  • -e only add -d (raid - raided)
  • a consonant plus -y the y is turned into -ied (study - studied / try - tried)
  • -c add -ked (panic - panicked)
  • a single vowel plus a consonant and is stressed on its final syllable the consonant is usually doubled and -ed added (plan - planned)
  • -p, g or -m the consonant is usually doubled and -ed added (ram - rammed / tap - tapped / gag - gagged)
  • -l the consonant is usually doubled (travel - travelled)

Regular Verbs

Base Form To walk
Present Simple I walk every day.
Present Progressive/Continuous I am walking.  (now)
Present Perfect Simple I have walked twice so far today.
Present Perfect Progressive/Continuous I have been walking for 2 hours.
Past Simple I walked yesterday.
Past Progressive/Continuous I was walking yesterday when I saw a bear.
Past Perfect Simple I had walked for five miles by the time I got home.
Past Perfect Progressive/Continuous I had been walking for 2 hours when I saw the bear.
Future Simple I will go for a walk tomorrow.
Future Progressive/Continuous I am walking tomorrow.
Future Perfect Simple I will have already gone for a walk by the time I meet my friends.
Future Perfect Progressive I will have been walking for 2 hours by the time I meet my friends.

Irregular Verbs

The only rule is that there are no rules for the spelling of irregular verbs, they have to be learnt. Sorry!

For example:-

  To run
Present Simple I run every day.
Present Progressive/Continuous I am running.  (now)
Present Perfect Simple I have run twice so far today.
Present Perfect Progressive/Continuous I have been running for 2 hours.
Past Simple I ran yesterday.
Past Progressive/Continuous I was running yesterday when I saw a bear.
Past Perfect Simple I had run for five miles by the time I got home.
Past Perfect Progressive/Continuous I had been running for 2 hours when I saw the bear.
Future Simple I will go for a run tomorrow.
Future Progressive/Continuous I am running tomorrow.
Future Perfect Simple I will have already gone for a run by the time I meet my friends.
Future Perfect Progressive I will have been running for 2 hours by the time I meet my friends.

There is a list of irregular verbs here.

More help with your spelling.

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