What is the past participle?

The past participle indicates past or completed action or time. It is often called the 'ed' form as it is formed by adding -d, -ed, or-t to the base form of regular verbs, however it is also formed in various other ways for irregular verbs.

The past participle is often used with the auxillary verb "have", and it can be used to form a verb phrase as part of the present perfect tense.

For example:-

I have learnt English. (Learnt is part of the verb phrase 'have learnt')

It can be used to form the passive voice.

For example:-

Her hair was well brushed.

Some past participles end in -en.

The past participle can also be used as an adjective.

For example:-

He had a broken arm. (Broken is used here as an adjective.)

There are a few irregular verbs in English that do not follow any of these rules. Here is a comprehensive list of irregular verbs.