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ESL / EFL Teaching - Glossary of Terms

Advanced The word advanced refers to levels C1 and C2 as defined in the Global Scale grid of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. You should take into account that sometimes materials are based on different definitions of an advanced learner.
Authentic materials Resources in the target language which could be used for language learning and teaching although they were not originally designed for this purpose, e.g.: newspapers; on-line weather forecasts; timetables; guides to museums or galleries. Remember that you need not understand every word to gain a lot of information!
Beginner The word beginner refers to levels A1 and A2 as defined in the Global Scale grid of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. You should take into account that sometimes materials are based on different definitions of a beginner.
CALL Computer assisted language learning.
Case Study Following a real life example from beginning to end.
EAP English for academic purposes.
EFL English as a foreign language.
EIL English as an international language.
ESL English as a scond language.
ESP English for special purposes. Designed to give students instruction in specific content areas.
Intermediate The word intermediate refers to levels B1 and B2 as defined in the Global Scale grid of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. You should take into account that sometimes learning materials are based on different definitions of an intermediate learner.
Keywords The most important terms or phrases.
Kinesthetics Learners prefer different styles in learning languages. A kinesthetic learner is one who prefers to learn by physically moving and actively participating (also called a hands-on-learner).
Level Knowing a language ranges from recognizing a few words to competently and effectively communicating in a variety of demanding situations. This path can be divided into steps called levels, such as beginner, intermediate and advanced.
MOO A MOO (Multi-User-Domain Object Oriented) can be described as a type of on-line computer game where users can build their own environment and communicate with other 'players'. There are MOOs designed specifically for language learning."
Role Play A learning activity in which you assume a role to practise a variety of language skills.
Skill Knowing a language consists of several areas, such as reading, writing, listening and speaking. These are called skills. Knowledge of grammar and vocabulary can also be practised separately and often appear on lists of skills, even if they are incorporated in the other skills. Pronunciation and spelling can also be seen as separate skills within the areas of speaking and writing. Sociocultural and functional skills refer to the ability to use a language in a culturally and socially appropriate way.
Source Language Source language is the language in which the learning material or resource is presented. It is easier to use resources with a source language you already know. For example:
  1. A resource for learning Finnish, intended for speakers of German, explaining grammar and vocabulary in German: Finnish = target language, German = source language.
  2. An English to Spanish dictionary: English = source language, Spanish = target language.
  3. A research article in Dutch on teaching French to young learners: Dutch = source language, French = target language.
Tandem Learning Two people learn each other's languages by meeting regularly, in person or via e-mail, chat or telephone etc. Half the time they use one language, half the time the other.
Target Language Target language is the language which you want to learn or into which you are translating. In addition, in the context of Lingu@net Europa, target language is the language the resource is designed to teach or to which the resource refers. For example:
  1. A resource for learning Finnish, intended for speakers of German, explaining grammar and vocabulary in German: Finnish = target language, German = source language.
  2. An English to Spanish dictionary: English = source language, Spanish = target language.
  3. A research article in Dutch on teaching French to young learners: Dutch = source language, French = target language.
TEFL Teaching English as a foreign language.
TESL Teaching English as a second language.
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